話說之前係edX register咗 “Rhetoric: The Art of Persuasive Writing and Public Speaking“，當然click咗就冇再follow up（因為入面嘅examples都係全部american politics有關的，例如I have a Dream and other Presidential Rhetorics 但想睇闊d）。睇返chapter one，其實好多都係以前Form 1-3 Eng Lit又讀過嘅嘢。introduction嘅重點：
- Aristotle named three types of appeals (methods to persuade others) – Logos (by logic), Ethos (by expertise), Pathos (by emotions)
- Common Arrangement of a Rhetoric – (1) exordium, the introduction; (2) narratio, the statement of the context or situation; (3) confirmatio, the presentation of arguments and facts; (4) refutatio, the presentation and refuting of counterarguments; (e.g. some may say) and (5) peroratio, the conclusion.
- Style can be controlled by diction (choice of words – too technical/flowery?), syntax/pattern of sounds (word orders – alliteration, assonance, sibilance), schemes (parallelism/repetition/omission), and tropes (Twist of meanings such as metaphors, allusion [reference to other works] or puns).
When you are writing a speech, you should bear in mind that your audience will only have one chance to understand any one thing you say. They can’t stop and replay what you just said. As a result, you will have to work to make sure that you bring them along with you. It is critical for your speech to have a clearly articulated argument that you refer back to often to keep it fresh in your hearers’ minds. Your speech should also have a clear structure, with “signal phrases” that let your audience know when you are moving from one idea to the next.
- Division – e.g. “”I want to talk to you today about three places where we begin to build the Great Society:..the second place..the third place…”
- Style – repetition, parellellism, anaphora
- The Sound Byte – short, punchy sentences that sum up your points.
Public Speaking Tips
- 1) Find out more about your venue – big? small? who? mics? how to turn them on and off?
- 2) Presence – stand tall and breath low. warm-up by favorite song.
- Eye Contact – look at several people, don’t forget people at the back.
- Practice – practice the several important words first in the sentence, underline them in the text – emphasize on the words!
- Shift your standing position when there is a change of subject
- Beware of pace, tend to speed up. take small pauses between sentences. take a breath / sip of water.
- Articulate, be clear of each word.
- Any sentence that is difficult to say, re-write it.