下班就是上學

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Three ideas of justice
  1.  Maximise welfare
  2. Respect freedom
  3. Promote virtue
Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) – Utilitarianism “greatest happiness principle”
  • The right thing to do is whatever maximise happiness (quantity) to the community as a whole (trolley)
  • Overall balance of pleasure over pain
  • Natural rights is non-sense (e.g. throwing Christian to lions for entertainment)
  • No quality distinction among pleasures (“push-pin is as good as poetry”) – all values can be measured & compared on a single scale
  • (corpse waxed on display for UCL, attend meeting “present but not voting”)
Objections against Utilitarianism 
  • Fails to respect individual rights and fails to respect dignity of human beings
  • All values can’t be captured by a common currency of values (e.g. Philip Morris, Ford Pinto – cost & benefit analysis with monetary values on human life)
JS Mill (1806-1873) – Utilitarianism can distinguish higher pleasures from lowers one
  • On Liberty (1859)
  • Can distinguish higher and lower pleasures (by quality, not just by quantity or intensity)
  • The higher pleasure are not higher because we prefer them; we prefer them because it engages our highest faculties and make us more fully human
  • Celebration of individuality
  • People should be free to do whatever they want, provided they do no harm to others
  • “It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied. And if the fool, or the pig, is of a different opinion, it is only because they only know their own side of the question.”

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